15 Incredible Structures on Earth That We Aren’t Sure How They Were Made

Modern technology has explained many of this planet’s mysteries, but some factors frustrate science. Some ancient structures defy explanation, leading to wild ideas and conspiracy theories.

Were some of these structures built via superhuman efforts, or can we find a better explanation beyond the theory that “aliens did it”?

1. Stonehenge

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This incredible stone circle in the UK continues to baffle science. A ring of stones with other vertical structures on top sits on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, and it’s been there for thousands of years. Some of the sarsen stones weigh up to 25 tons, and they would be problematic to move using today’s methods. So, how was Stonehenge constructed? We don’t know.

2. Easter Island Heads

Easter Island Heads
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The Moai, to give them their correct name, is a group of figures located on Easter Island in Eastern Polynesia. Like Stonehenge, these structures’ sheer weight and size make it impossible to say how they were created. Some of the stones weigh more than 80 tons. They were built and carved between 1250 and 1500, and it’s impossible to understand how those immense stones came to the island.

3. The Pyramids

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Scientific opinion splits over the origins of Egypt’s great pyramids. According to National Geographic, there’s a theory that ropes and ramps could have moved the massive stone blocks, but nobody is sure. Of all the mysterious structures on Earth, the pyramids are the subject of the most alien conspiracy theories.

4. Puma Punku

Puma Punku
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Many of the structures in this article have something in common: the stones used in building them are gigantic and so heavy that they defy explanation. How were they moved and put in place without specialist equipment? That’s the question at the Puma Punku site in Bolivia. Located in Tiwanaku, it’s a raised mound with stone blocks, some weighing about 143 tons.

5. Newgrange

UNESCO World Heritage, Newgrange (Bru na Boinne), in Ireland. Famous megalithic passage tomb built by celtic druids over 5000 years ago.
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Ireland’s County Meath has a neolithic structure older than Stonehenge and the Pyramids. Newgrange dates to about 3,200 B.C. and is a raised mound with underground tombs. At least we know the purpose of Newgrange, even if we can’t explain how it got there.

6. Plain of Jars

Plain of Jars
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The Plain of Jars is called this because of the shape of the individual monuments. Thousands of these monuments are scattered throughout the valleys and foothills of Laos. Some “jars” even have lids, which were likely constructed to contain and preserve materials, but nobody knows their exact purpose. Some stones weigh up to 14 tons and could date from about 1240 B.C., so science is also at a loss to explain how they were moved and installed.

7. Big Horn Medicine Wheel

Big Horn Medicine Wheel
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No one claims responsibility for the giant structure in the Bighorn National Forest in Wyoming. The monument doesn’t feature heavy stones, but who built it and how? Indigenous people do not claim involvement in this structure. It aligns with the stars and the summer solstice. Today, the Big Horn Medicine Wheel is used for ceremonial purposes, but its origins remain a mystery.

8. Goseck Circle

Goseck Circle
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The German town of Goseck offers another ancient mystery. A circle made from wooden posts would have been easily constructed in 4900 B.C., but how did our forefathers create such a perfect circle? The symmetry is incredible, and it’s hard to fathom how the Goseck Circle appeared using ancient tools.

9. The Church Atop Katskhi Pillar

Tourist Georgia. Famous Katskhi pillar near town of Chiatura in Imereti with small monastery and Church of Maxim Confessor on top. Aerial view on cloudy spring day.
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The natural limestone monument of Katshki Pillar is impressive enough. It’s a tall, thin structure near the Georgian city of Chiatura, extending to over 130 feet in height. Its natural design makes it almost impossible to climb. With those features in mind, how did a church get to the top of this pillar? The church arrived between the 9th and 10th centuries, defying science. Some think that divine intervention is the only explanation.

10. Coral Castle

Homestead, FL, USA - January 1, 2022: Coral Castle Museum is shown in Homestead near Miami, FL, USA, an oolite limestone structure created by the Latvian-American eccentric Edward Leedskalnin.
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Situated in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Coral Castle offers more than one mystery. This series of large stone structures appeared in 1920. It’s relatively recent, but nobody can understand how engineer Ed Leedskalnin built it without modern machinery. When quizzed, Leedskalnin cryptically replied that he knew how the pyramids came about.

11. Derinkuyu

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Ancient lost cities, whether overground or underwater, often fall into the realms of myths and fables. In 1963, one of these legendary lost cities reappeared when a Turkish farmer kept losing his chickens. They disappeared into a vast underground world known as Derinkuyu, where 20,000 people are estimated to have lived since about 370 B.C. The skill and craftsmanship involved in its construction defies belief, with about 200 networks, many of which are sited on multiple levels.

12. Desert Gates

Desert Gates
Image Credit: Google Earth.

The inception of Google Earth has uncovered many mysteries that may have otherwise remained hidden. Aerial photographers have discovered strange structures shaped like crude gates across the lava fields of Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Jordan. Further investigation showed these were low stone walls. Experts have yet to learn how the walls got there or their purpose.

13. Towers of the Himalayas

Towers of the Himalayas
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The Himalayan region is famed for its natural beauty, but artificial construction offers another reason to visit. The Towers of the Himalayas are a series of slender, tapering towers considered part of an ancient dam constructed about 1,500 years ago. Others believe that, as the towers are in prosperous areas, they could be the world’s first status symbols.

14. Avebury Stone Circles

Details of stones in the Prehistoric Avebury Stone Circle, Wiltshire, England, UK
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Avebury is another mysterious ancient British monument about 25 miles from Stonehenge. The village of Avebury is home to three stone circles, believed to date to the Neolithic period. Like Stonehenge, the Avebury circles use huge Sarsen stones, and no one is sure how they could have been moved into place. There are three stone circles in total — the largest of their kind in the world.

15. Olmec Colossal Heads

Olmec Colossal Head in the ancient city of La Venta
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The Olmec civilization in Mexico dates to circa 1600 B.C., and they left behind some awe-inspiring monuments. Carved stone heads from 4 to 11 feet tall probably represent revered leaders. The sheer size of these stones leaves many questions, but the quality of the sculpture and carving is incredible. How did the craftspeople employ such detail using crude early tools?


The Fugutive
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